Institute of Javanologie
"Panunggalan" Science & Cultural Foundation - Yogyakarta

This Institute, established in 1984, has goals to preserve Javanese culture through its researches, seminars & various activities such as performing cultural events etc. All its activities are aimed to benefit development of national culture.

It organizes some courses for learning Javanese language, in depth training to prepare professional masters of ceremonies, all aspects of traditional wedding ceremony etc. It has plan to make a class of Java kuno (old Javanese) language.

The meaning Of " Panunggalan"

Panunggalan means unity. The foundation was named after the third King of Mataram Hindu Kingdom in the eight century A.D who was Sri Maharaja Rakai Panunggalan .
During his reign the culture was prosperous, it could be a wonderful example. According to Rakai Panunggalan the bravest warrior is someone who could defeat 6 enemies, namely :

  1. KAMA (lust)
  2. DWESHA (hate)
  3. MOHA (dark mind)
  4. DAMBHA (greediness)
  5. IRSYA (Envy)
  6. MATSYARYA (dislike to someone else)

Several well known and qualified experts of art, culture, history, literature, are included in the list of its boards, strengthened by some public figures concerned with the development of culture.

In the Board of Advisers among others :

Pro. Dr. T. Jacoub -the ex Rector of Gajahmada University, Prince Puger, from Yogya royal family, ex Director General of Cultural Affairs of Indonesia, Ret. Army general Wiyogo, ex governor of Jakarta, Dr. S. Wonohito from Yogya daily Kedaulatan Rakyat.

The Board of founders

Mr. Karkono Kamajaya Partokusumo a noted cultural expert (as the chairman of the board)
Mr. RM. Winoto Parartho from the weekly Buana Minggu, Jakarta. Etc
Two founding fathers of this Institute are the late Mr. KPH. Poerwokoesoemo and the late Prof. Soeroso M.A.

The Board of Javanologi Institute

The chairman is Dipl. Ing. Haryono Arumbinang MSC. A professor of Batan Nuclear Energy of Yogyakata , previously he was the Director of Batan. He is famous for his expertise of Keris.

The Board of experts

It consists of 35 super experts in specific fields : culture, literature, wayang shadow puppets, gamelan, keris, philosophy, archeology, tradition, dance, paintings, history, handicrafts, spiritual matters, psychic, Javanese prediction etc.

Ruwatan Murwakala

It is a ritual traditional event by performing wayang puppets with the story of Murwakala, with purpose to live safely & happily, to avoid of becoming victims of Batara Kala, a bad son of god Guru. Ruwatan from the word ruwat means free of sins & mistakes.
Batara Kala, a bad son of god Guru, who was entitled to eat human-beings in the list of Sukerta. Sukerta or Sukarta means a decent deed or to be loved. In the murwakala, sukerta is a child or children who are loved very much by their parents. Their safety & happiness are concerned by the parents, because they are in the list of Sukerta.


the procession

There are about 25 categories of sukerta, among other :

1. Ontang anting:
the only boy in the family, with no brothers & sisters
2. Unting- unting:
the only girl in the family
3. Gedhana- gendhini:
a boy & a girl in the family
4. Uger-uger lawang:
2 boys in the family
5. Kembar Sepasang:
2 girls in the family
6. Pendhawa :
5 boys in the family
7. Ngayomi:
5 girls in the family Etc.


ask blessing from parents

Also people who has accidents when he is doing something & these accidents are considered dangerous, they are also Sukerta A.O :

  1. People who fall down rice-cooker when boiling rice
  2. People who break " gandik " a kind of tool from stone when making jamu (Traditional herbal medicine)

Those above Sukerta people must be protected from Batara Kala by performing Ruwatan Murwakala. This Ruwatan performance is considered as very sacred, it must be prepared carefully.

The Story of Murwakala

In one beautiful afternoon, god Guru & his wife, goddess Uma riding his bull Andini encircling the world. The scenery was very beautiful, god Guru also saw that his wife was also very beautiful. At once, he wanted to make love with her. Despite her rejection that it was not a proper time & place to make love, Guru in the peak of sexual desire forced her. While he reached orgasm, goddess Uma pushed him, freed herself from his strong embrace which was full of lust. Thus, his sperms fell into the sea and became a big bad giant - Kala. So Kala was a mistaken product. Due to mistake, Kala, a son of gods, became an ogre giant who wished to eat only human flesh.

Batara Guru, his father gave permission to Kala to eat people of Sukerta. But after having a discussion with god Narada, his Patih (Prime Minister) , the "menu" for Kala was too much.

Then Guru wrote a mantra (magic spells) in Kala's body. He decided that people who could read this mantra, must be considered as Kala's father although he is a child. Kala has to respect him. As only a few people knew this mantra, victim of Kala was still a lot. Secretly Guru went down to the earth, in disguise as a Dalang (Wayang puppet master), his name was Ki Dalang Kandabuwana.

Kala surrendered and he was instructed by Ki Dalang to live in the jungle of Krenda wahana . Kala agreed to never bother the Sukertas which have been adopted as Ki Dalang's children, those were Sukertas which have joined ruwatan Murwakala.

Kala asked to be blessed by Santi Puja Mantra, Ki Dalang agreed by bathing him with water & flowers. Before leaving to the jungle, Kala asked some offerings consisting of agricultural crops & tools, kitchen utensils some cattle such as, cows, buffaloes, sheep, chicken, ducks etc, long cloths, some food & mat, pillow & blanket to be used on his way to the jungle.

After Kala left, Ki Dalang instructed Bima or god Bayu to chase away all Kala's troops by using a broom with silver rope and a whip. At the end, the dalang should cut the hairs of the sukerta & bathe them with water & flowers.

The lessons of Ruwatan Murwakala

  1. The people says that Kala is a product of (in local language) Kama-Salah, mistaken sperm, a mistaken product. This would like to say that sexual relation between a man & a woman should be performed in a good manner, at a proper time & place. It should not exposing only a bodily lust, which could give a birth to a bad manner child.
  2. The offerings asked by Kala represent things which are needed for human life. They are also symbolizing love to motherland with all its products.

Important things during Ruwatan

  1. The Dalang - He must be a wise & qualified dalang, symbolically he should be the adopted father of the Sukerta.
  2. Proper manner of the performance. The sukertas & their families should involve with a deep feeling during the performance, to understand the essential meaning of the Kidung (sacred songs/ mantras) sung by the Dalang.
  3. The holy water used to bathe the Sukertas must be from seven different springs.
  4. The Ruwatans organized by Javanologi Institute have been joint by Sukertas from Indonesia and foreign countries among other Europe, Asia, USA etc.

The address of Javanologi Institute is :
Kompleks PURNA BUDAYA - BULAK SUMUR
Phone .0274-582610
YOGYAKARTA 55281, INDONESIA

(Suryo S. Negoro)


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